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Hi Comrades, I will show you an excerpt from a book I'm writing about analogic and digital watches of Soviet Union. I want to talk to you about two watches that I love: the Chaika and the Slava 3050. which was the first?? in my research I could not come to any conclusion...If someone wants to correct me and add more things about my article, I will be delighted. The story is written little by little, steap by steap and unfortunately, we do not have much information about this exciting period of Soviet watchmaking. Hope you like.

...In this chapter, we will see how the Soviet Union finally entered the scene of the quartz watch. He did (although a little late compared to the West) with the Chaika 3050 KR "Kvarzevi Resonator". The Chaika 3050 is undoubtedly a special watch with a marked aesthetic characteristic. A step in the history of Soviet watchmaking, which brought its industry into the civil technological modernity and that, however paradoxical, was also the starting point of the decline of it. The Chaika 3050, considered as the first analogue quartz watch without frill of the USSR, was officially presented at the Trade Fair of Leipzig in 1976(1) together with its digital namesake the Elektronika B6-02, 6 years after Seiko with its Astron 35SQ and the CEH consortium with the BETA 21 Project will revolutionize the world of watchmaking .. The lack of first-hand information and Russian official sources will make us guess when trying to trace the history of the development of this fascinating watch .

I will start with an article from the magazine(2 )"Radio" Nª4 from 1974, which is the oldest reference I have found about the Chaika 3050

4.jpg

1 I do not have documentary evidence about this event


2 Æóðíàë Ðàäèî # 4 çà 1974 ãîä

Where specifically on page 13 there is an interesting article, with a revealing paragraph:

Прогресс в области микроэлектроники резко изменил картину. В течение нескольких лет уже успело смениться три поколения электронных ручных часов. Представителем первого являлись «камертонные часы», источником колебаний в которых был камертон. Электронными в них были несколько пассивных компонентов и один транзистор, служащий в качестве переключателя.


“К следующему поколению относят кварцевые часы со стрелочным циферблатом. Их создание стало возможным благодаря появлению средних и больших интегральных схем. В кварцевых часах рядом с электроникой (кварцевый генератор, интегральные схемы) продолжала соседствовать точная механика в виде микродвигателя и циферблата со стрелками.

“Окончательному вытеснению из часов механических частей способствовало открытие нового класса оптических материалов, а также последние достижения оптоэлектроники. В результате обычный циферблат был заменен индикатором, выполненным либо на жидких кристаллах, либо на светоизлучающих полупроводниковых диодах. Так появилось третье поколение электронных наручных часов.”

Н. ГРИГОРЬЕВА



That in approximate translation to English:

“...Progress in microelectronics has dramatically changed the picture. For several years, three generations of electronic hand watches have already changed. The representative of the first was the "tuning fork", the source of oscillations in which was a tuning fork. The electronic ones had several passive components and one transistor serving as a switch.
The next generation includes a quartz watch with a dial dial. Their creation became possible due to the appearance of medium and large integrated circuits. In the quartz clock next to the electronics (quartz oscillator, integrated circuits), the exact mechanics continued to coexist in the form of a micromotor and a dial with arrows”


The final replacement of mechanical parts from watches was facilitated by the discovery of a new class of optical materials, as well as the latest achievements in optoelectronics. As a result, the usual dial was replaced by an indicator performed either on liquid crystals or on light-emitting semiconductor diodes. So there was the third generation of electronic wristwatches....”


the author describes us in these three concise paragraphs of the evolution suffered by electronic watches as we saw in previous chapters dedicated to Luch and his predecessors, up to the achievement of digital clocks. However the most revealing thing for us, is that it affirms the existence of watches controlled by quartz oscillator with analog micro-rotor, manufactured in the USSR (it is possible that it refers to our Chaika) in 1974. But it is more likely to refer to the prototypes, as it was not officially presented, as we have seen previously, in the Leipzig Trade Fair of 1976, but this will be my starting point to try to write the history of Chaika 3050.

the exact mechanics continued to coexist in the form of a micromotor and a dial with arrows

p0013.jpg


The so-called "revolution" of quartz(3), in the West, caused a drastic change in the watchmaking industry, and although in its beginnings quartz watches were very expensive(4), the rapid evolution of its mass production quickly made its costs cheaper and cheaper. Soon, millions of people in the world could enjoy accurate, reliable and cheap watches. In the "block of the East" the watch industry was still typically mechanical and although electromechanical clocks had already been in its market for almost a decade, its presence was more testimonial, as we saw in the case of the Luch or Slava. But it was not in the Soviet Union where the first quartz watch was developed, but in the German Democratic Republic, where approximately in 1972 they presented the Ruhla Quartz 28-33(5) I will not elaborate on this watch, but it would have been unfair not to mention it and it is more than probable that its appearance spurred the USSR to manufacture its own quartz watch(6)

sigmund-jahn-space-flight.jpg

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartz_crisis
4 https://www.hodinkee.com/articles/four-revolutions-quartz-revolution
5 https://www.watchuseek.com/f10/ruhl...artz-watch-ever-made-eastern-bloc-888105.html
6 https://ostalgieruhla.wordpress.com/ruhla-watches-decade-by-decade/ruhla-1970s/

In this context, the State Committee for electronic technology of the USSR(7) created in 1965 urged Chaspron(8) and "Pulsar"( 9 )to develop the first quartz watches, both analogue and digital. On the "Pulsar" website there is a revealing paragraph chronologically before 1973

«Пульсар» первым взялся за разработку электронных наручных часов. Различные варианты их исполнения с индикацией на жидких кристаллах и светодиодах выпускались на заводе «Пульсар» и в дальнейшем переданы на освоение в г. Минск

“ Pulsar " was the first to take up the development of electronic wristwatches. Different variants of execution are displayed at the liquid crystal and LED were manufactured in the factory " Pulsar " and subsequently transferred to development in Minsk(10).


In my search I have been able to find two documents that in my opinion can be important and provide more data to try to trace this timeline


The first, is the oldest reference on the development of a quartz watch in the Soviet Union. It is an astronomical clock

t2png.gif


The second and also very important is the patent that made in 1968/70 the Soviet engineers of the stepper motor, in this case for a slave or secundary watch. Curious, was patented in USA

https://patents.google.com/patent/US3496393

Unfortunately I could not find something similar in the NII Chaspron that was the institute in charge of developing in analogical project. At this point and without counting on information about the Uglich factory it is almost impossible to create a chronological order of the events and development of the Chaika 3050, so from here everything is conjecture. Fortunately, the 3050 mechanism was also mounted on Slava, Poljot and Raketa watches

In a booklet / catalog(11) dated 1976 from the Slava factory, published in Russian and English, we can see one of the oldest graphic sources of a quartz watch, specifically Slava 3050, of the Soviet Union. In this first photograph we observe the model in question (curious case, because it is a model for export since its spelling is not in Cyrillic)

20180430_183212.jpg

7 https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Министерство_электронной_промышленности_СССР
8 ?????????? :: ??????? ????. ???????? ? ???????? ????. ????????? ????. ??????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ??????? - ???????
9 ??????? "????????"
10 ??????? "????????"
11 https://www.dropbox.com/s/z61vjxx2b72k3j6/Каталог часов Слава, 1976 - 2 МЧЗ.pdf?dl=0


In the same catalog, we can read more explicit references about the production of quartz watches by this factory

20180430_183148.jpg

And in the book "" История часового завода Слава "12 edited by the company itself there is an interesting paragraph that I quote literally

“ При освоении кварцевых наручных часов в нашей стране..... очень удачно была использована межзаводская кооперация по обеспечению оригинальными, по сравнению с механическими часами узлами (блоками), отдельными элементами и деталями, при освоении которых учитывались особенности каждого из часовых заводов. Так, интегральными микросхемами и электронными блоками всех обеспечивал Минский часовой завод (в г. Минске находилось крупнейшее в Союзе объединение по производству микроэлектроники «Интеграл»); на Угличском часовом заводе были освоены кварцевые резонаторы, первую скрипку в освоении которых играл будущий генеральный директор МПО «2МЧЗ» Королёв В.М. Завод имел большой опыт обработки часовых камней, а Угличский филиал НИИЧаспрома являлся некоей научной и опытно-конструкторской базой. Кусинский завод точных технических камней стал базовым по производству магнитов для шаговых двигателей, кремниевых пластин для интегральных микросхем и источников питания. Наш (2МЧЗ)завод стал базовым по производству шаговых двигателей. "

“В 1976 году 2МЧЗ выдвигается на Всесоюзную доску почёта ВДНХ. В этом же году выпускается первая промышленная партия кварцевых наручных часов мод. 3050.... ..... Итак, первые кварцевые наручные часы модели 3050 имели механизм калибра 30 мм, высоту 7,5 мм, шаговый двигатель (ШД), двойной календарь, центральную секундную стрелку, питались от элемента с номинальным напряжением 1,5 вольта типа 018, 10 камней, автономность 12 месяцев, средний суточный ход ( 2 секунды, ток потребления 4 МКА, частоту кварцевого генератора 32768 Гц, ШД - магнитоэлектрический двухполюсный с выносной катушкой, 30 об/мин.

title1 (1).jpg


12 https://slava.su/spravochnaja-informatsija/Istorija-chasovogo-zavoda-Slava/

From which we can gather that the industrial production of 3050 began in 1976, just the year, when it is assumed that the Chaika was presented at the "Trade Fair" in Leipzig, although I could not find any document to corroborate this event . In approximate translation of English:

" In 1976 2MCHZ is nominated for the All-Union VDNKh Honor Board. In the same year, the first industrial batch of quartz wristwatches mod. 3050 ....

If we translate the first paragraph to English:

"With the development of quartz wristwatches in our country ..... the interfactory cooperation was very successfully used to provide the original, in comparison with the mechanical clocks nodes (blocks), individual elements and details, the mastery of which took into account the characteristics of each of the watch factories. , integrated Minsk microcircuits and electronic components were provided by the Minsk watch factory (in Minsk there was the largest union in the Union for the production of microelectronics "Integral"), at the Uglich watch factory quartz resonators, the first violin in the development of which was played by the future general director of MPO "2MCHZ" Korolyov VM The plant had a great experience of processing watch stones, and the Uglich branch of NIICasprom was a certain scientific and experimental design base.

Our (2MCHZ) plant became the base for the production of stepper motors. "

We can infer the collaboration between the different production plants: Uglich, Minsk, the Chaspron institute and Slava. Counting on these sources, I would dare to conjecture that the first quartz watch produced in the Soviet Union was born between 1974-76.

Undoubtedly, the most interesting article about the development of the Chaika 3050 in the English language, belongs to Mr. Vpn, written for the Watchuseek forum(13) where he establishes a very similar and yet later chronology: 1976 as the year of its presentation and 1978 as a year of production. Unfortunately, the author makes the mistake of not "revealing" his sources, but from his article it is inferred that it was well documented; I literally quote from the original:

“ So, in 1974, at the technical institute "NII Chasprom", two teams of engineers were formed “

“ The project of the second team, led by Chaika (that was in charge of the development of the electronical part, in collaboration with the NII Chasprom) and Raketa (that was in charge of the productionization of the mechanical part of the prototypes, since the mass production of the mechanical part was assigned to the First Moscow Watch Factory), was completed at the beginning of 1976, while the first team completed its job shortly thereafter.”

“However, in 1976 none of the two watches were still ready to debut on the market. So we should wait the next year, 1977, in order to see their debut on the market, although the Chaika 3050-KR was distributed, with a redesigned movement, only in 1978”

In my personal opinion, it seems very strange to me that in 1976 we already find in the catalog the Slava with the same caliber and Mr. Vpn places it in 1977 (al Chaika, being the first watch to carry this movement) does not coincide the year in which places the engineers of Chaspron in their research: 1974, when in the article of the magazine "Radio" it is taken for granted that in that same year the manufactured watches were already in place, as we have seen previously. But we will return to this article later, because it is really interesting and more coherent than the other "official sources" that we find in the English language.

To cite a totally erroneous in particular, considered as "the bible" of electric watches and quartz: Mr. Doensen's book "WATCH. History of the modern wrist watch(14). From where I quote literally its brief paragraph:

Yanka Quartz caliber 3050, also known under the names 'Slava', 'Luch' or 'Ruhm'. The first Russian quartz watch, caliber 3050, that was brought on the market around 1980 with a tuning fork shaped quartz of 9,720 Hz. The watch was equipped with a stepping motor and a hybrid circuit, mounted on a plate made out of pertinax.

If we read carefully, this entry is really a nonsense, full of errors, from the oscillations of quartz, the name of the brands, the date, etc. At least in this case, he has not limited himself to saying that this caliber was a plagiarism of another and I really do not know if he was very ill informed or reviled Soviet watchmaking, (something as easy as citing a repair manual dated in 1980(15) it already dismantles all its entrance) but it clearly represents the erroneous line of thought and investigation that has flown like a shadow the subject of the Soviet watchmaking during the last 10 years.

I will limit myself to citing one more source:

The one of Mr. Piotr(16 )That corrects Doensen and that locates the production circa 1978

“The 3050 Quartz Resonator is the first pure quartz watch with stepping motor introduced in the USSR somewhere in 1978 and produced until 1983 (production dates on quartz). The inhouse technology.....”

Here if that refers to the character of "manufacture" of caliber 3050 and the absence of steering wheel of the caliber, already replaced by a "stepper engine". It locates its production between 1978 and 1983, for the dates marked in the quartz oscillators, analytical-empirical method, but that has its drawbacks as we saw in the previous chapters.<br>

13 https://www.watchuseek.com/f10/chaika-3050-kr-first-soviet-quartz-watch-848468.html
14 https://doensen.home.xs4all.nl/index.html
15 https://www.dropbox.com/s/pc09jzf83wsf30c/Устройство и ремонт часов, 1980 — А.П. Харитончук.pdf?dl=0
16 TCHAIKA RAKETA 3050 QUARTZ 1979
Chaika 3050 Кварцевый резонатор

I have been able to find any catalog photo, (thank you Comrade Sekondtime) and any graphic advertising claim, but its emergence should not have gone unnoticed at that time. Its blue color dial, which varies in intensity, depending on the light; the depth of it, achieved by its three levels and its metal markers, its generous size ... give it a very particular aesthetic. It is a "striking" and unique watch, because never before had mechanical version

f we refer again to the article by Mr. Vpn(17) It tells us that the first versions appeared with the 3050 caliber equipped with a stop seconds and an instantaneous date change. In the next remittance, the date change is progressive

“Usually, on the second generation of CRP-3050, the hacking feature is activated only if the crown is pulled in the second position (time setting). But the differences do not end there: on the second generation, the calendar changes in a slow, usually starting at about eleven o'clock in the evening, and ending about two o'clock at night.

However, in the first generation, the date changes immediately at midnight, just as it does on Vostoks. These two small differences are just some of those that distinguish the first and second generation of the 3050 movement, and we can have an idea about what were the some of the features that Chaika chose to scrap: remove the hacking feature in the first crown position (redesigning the hacking system) and changing the date change mechanism, from instant to slow, apart from the other changes I've mentioned before (reduction of the quality of the electronics and the mechanical part)”.

Attending again his words, we see that during the first years, its distribution was scarce and it was an expensive product, destined to a select public. Only during subsequent years production was reduced and exports were made to countries of the communist bloc. I want to comment that the author does not clearly indicate if it was the Chaika or other brands with the same mechanism, which were exported. My opinion is in favor of the Chaika being used exclusively in the "domestic market", given its absence in export catalogs, not so Poljot, or Slava, which are more common.

“t is said that only very few examples -perhaps a dozen, or perhaps less- of the first generation, produced in 1977, were distributed in stores, and today is uncertain the exact number of how many models of the '77 "ghost batch" are still around. Indeed, right after the first batch was distributed in shops, the production was temporarily stopped, to revise and simplify the movement. The production was resumed in 1978, with a revised version that was more cheap to produce, but its quality was slightly lower than the first generation.

The 3050-KR, even though it was regularly available in the catalogs, had an almost limited distribution, especially the first generation. The only ones lucky enough to own it were those who were part of the Nomenklatura, and therefore had the right to buy it at half its original price. The watch was distributed mainly in the domestic market under the Chaika brand and was exported (mainly in the countries of the communist bloc) also with the Raketa one, at slightly lower prices, but still prohibitive for the ordinary citizen, and with a different case and dial. The same movement was also used by Slava and Poljot itself. “

The production had to be very laborious and difficult to manage, because according to Mr. Vpn involved numerous factories in its achievement and I quote literally:

“The stepping motor was also produced in Moscow, but not in the Poljot factory, but in the Slava one, which made the production process rather complicated: Poljot made the whole movement except for the stepping motor. Then, the movement was sent to the 2MWF to mount the stepping motor. Then, the movement, devoid of its electronic part, was sent to the Chaika factory in Uglich, waiting for the assembly of the electronic part. The printed circuit board, including the oscillator, was manufactured in the Integral plant in Minsk, Belarus, (in case of a saturation of the plant, the circuit was also produced in the Transistor factory), the same plant where the Elektronika B602 and the Elektronika-5 were produced.

Then, the electronic module, still without the quartz -since it was produced by Chaika-, was sent to Uglich to mount the quartz crystal, to do the quality control and the final assembly. The watch was finally ready to leave the factory. The same route was also followed for the movements that were given to the other factories (Poljot, Raketa, Slava), since quality control and the assembly of electronics -except the final assembly- was always done at the Chaika plant, making the process quite long, laborious and confusing by the logistical point of view, but more importantly, it was insanely expensive”.

17 https://www.watchuseek.com/f10/chaika-3050-kr-first-soviet-quartz-watch-848468.html

We deduce from this writing, that organizing production should not have been easy, for an industry consolidated in the construction of mechanical watches and as the author emphasizes, the cost was excessively high and expensive. Summing up the process

The NII Chaspron: that will be in charge of the electronic part (design) as well as the quartz oscillator.

the 1st Moscow watch factory (poljot) that will mass-produce the mechanical components of the caliber.

Integral: that will be responsible for producing the electronic chip with the built-in quartz.
Slava: will assemble and manufacture the stepper motor.

Chaika: It will be in charge of the assembly of the mechanical and electronic part in a single caliber (3050) and will do the final quality control.

Process that we have previously seen reflected in the book about the factory Slava(18) and where presumably Mr. Vpn seems to be documented. No wonder so, that both Poljot and Slava and Raketa, took their own models with the same caliber when the production had stabilized and organized. But was Chaika the first to produce a watch with this caliber? I am assaulted by doubts because I have not been able to document it, with passports or books and catalogs about the plant, but the "general opinion" is that yes. Here is a photograph with a passport, belonging to the collection of Mr. Mroatman(19) dating back to 1978


18 https://slava.su/spravochnaja-informatsija/Istorija-chasovogo-zavoda-Slava/
19 https://mroatman.wixsite.com/watches-of-the-ussr/chaika?lightbox=dataItem-irlhrjpm

And here we can see the different models of watches that appeared almost simultaneously, although I want to remember that the oldest graphic information that Ive had access to is Slava

kTdIdBScC9s.jpg


Raketa

Img 020-2.jpg

And finally Poljot(20)

Poljot_3050_2_zps549957ae.jpg

A press article, dated 1977(21), where an operator would appear in a watch factory, and in which we can see that she wears a quartz Raketa on her wrist.

0_a2f7e_3ba1d4be_XXL.jpg

20 https://www.watchuseek.com/f10/poljot-quartz-3050-saga-continues-844968.html
21 ????? ?????? ????????? ???? «??????» - ??????? ????? Watch.ru

To finish this section on the models and factories that mounted the 3050, I can not forget a variant of the Chaika that appeared later.

41784278.jpg


Or this rare Slava, with the "UFO" case so in vogue in the 70s

PICT5329.jpg



The caliber 3050

24130gg.jpg

As we have said before, caliber 3050 was the first, manufactured in the Soviet Union, to replace the steering wheel spiral with a stepper motor; solution adopted by the CEH consortium and the Beta 21(22) project from which calibrated as 1972 ESA 9180/1 equipped brands such as Zenith, Certina, Movado, etc. or the caliber Girard Perregaux(23) 352, of which they share constructive solutions. Returning to Slava(24)'s book quoted above, where he tells us that:

..... Итак, первые кварцевые наручные часы модели 3050 имели механизм калибра 30 мм, высоту 7,5 мм, шаговый двигатель (ШД), двойной календарь, центральную секундную стрелку, питались от элемента с номинальным напряжением 1,5 вольта типа 018, 10 камней, автономность 12 месяцев, средний суточный ход ( 2 секунды, ток потребления 4 МКА, частоту кварцевого генератора 32768 Гц, ШД - магнитоэлектрический двухполюсный с выносной катушкой, 30 об/мин."

and in approximate English translation:

“..... So, the first quartz wristwatch model 3050 had a caliber mechanism of 30 mm, a height of 7.5 mm, a stepper motor (SD), a double calendar, a central second hand, fed from an element with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts type 018 , 10 stones, autonomy 12 months, average daily travel (2 seconds, current consumption 4 МКА, frequency of the quartz generator 32768 Hz, ШД - magnetoelectric bipolar with remote coil, 30 rpm. "

22 First-Hand:The First Quartz Wrist Watch - Engineering and Technology History Wiki
23 GIRARD PERREGAUX 352 QUARTZ 1972
24 https://slava.su/spravochnaja-informatsija/Istorija-chasovogo-zavoda-Slava/

We see that: it has 10 jewels (the first versions had 11), central seconds, microrotor steps, a quartz oscillator that oscillated at a frequency of 32768, stop seconds, double datario with instant date change (in the first versions) completely mechanical A voltage of 1.5V and a range of approximately 12 months This is the oldest service manual I could find, dated 1980(25)

Or this more modern (26) circa 1986 that is already a complete manual of repairs, covering all quartz caliber, developed in the USSR, including the 23XX and 24XX series that evolved from 3050. In its preface it tells us about the development of the clock quartz, but unfortunately it does so in a very general way and without specifying any date. However, this book is a real treasure for those who have the ability to repair this type of calibres and faithfully reflects the spirit of the time where the epithet "programmed obsolescence" did not exist in the imagination of those who wrote it. I will illustrate a photograph of a pattern of the needles, where by surprise, they do not use the Chaika, but the Slava as an example. It is more than likely that at this time, the Chaika was no longer in production.



25 https://www.dropbox.com/s/pc09jzf83wsf30c/Устройство и ремонт часов, 1980 — А.П. Харитончук.pdf?dl=0
26 https://www.dropbox.com/s/gk3ejdeud3xmvoq/Часы наручные кварцевые. Справочное пособие по ремонту, 198Х – Тентосервис.pdf?dl=0

The operation of the 3050 is relatively simple. The battery feeds the electronic circuit which in turn sends an electrical pulse to the quartz oscillator; This starts to oscillate at 32768Hz per second. Each oscillation is equal to the pulse sent and it is in the distribution block where the frequency of the crystal is separated, reducing the electric pulse at intervals of one second. Thus the electric pulse becomes regular, emitting every second. The stepper motor, which consists of electromagnetic coils, divides this regular pulse by making a rotation that transmits, through gears, the necessary and precise impulse to move them with precision(27).

27 http://chronometrica.ru/device-quartz-watch/<br>

Here is an image of the electromagnetic stepper motor that replaced the spiral wheel(28)

tchaika3050quartz7.jpg


Here,s the complete mechanism

tchaika3050quartz3.jpg


Where we can observe the transistor that distributes the electrical pulse and the oscillations of the quartz towards the motor step, which in turn transmits it already mechanically to the train of running of the needles.

28 TCHAIKA RAKETA 3050 QUARTZ 1979

Earlier, at the beginning of this narrative, I was saying that although the Soviet Union entered the world of analog quartz watchmaking with the 3050, paradoxically its watch industry also began its decline. The causes should be analyzed in depth and not now in this article, but I will mention a few. Basically all its production plant was oriented to mechanical watchmaking; This involved a huge effort to adapt to the new mass manufacturing processes of analog and digital quartz watches. All this effort, not only technological development, was a huge economic cost (we have already seen all the plants that worked together to take forward the caliber 3050). The "quartz revolution" took the Soviets by surprise, as did many Swiss companies that disappeared in this period. The slow development of 3050, perhaps because the Soviet government opted for LCD watches, as we will see in the next chapter, prevented the development of a large export market as it had done before with mechanical watchmaking; that is, "they arrived late". Only analogue quartz watches with the calibres 2356 and 2460 were exported and the Asian market was already firmly conquered by the Japanese. The economic crisis of the late 1980s and finally the fall of the Soviet Union itself precipitated the stagnation of the watch industry in Russia for almost two decades. Although I started with the article in the magazine "Radio" of 1974, I would like to finish my presentation with another article from the same magazine29, but already a decade later, where it reports the optimism towards the quartz watches that flooded the internal market.


29 Æóðíàë Ðàäèî # 2 çà 1985 ãîä

Where I extracted the first paragraph in Russian from the original

“Сегодня и завтра электронных часов

В журнале «Радио» № 4 за 1974 г. опубликована статья «Необыкновенные превращения обыкновенных часов» — о первых отечественных кварцевых наручных часах с цифровой индикацией (далее — электронные наручные часы). За десять лет, прошедших с тех пор, это изделие электронной техники прошло интенсивный путь развития и стало неотъемлемой принадлежностью нашего быта. По имеющимся оценкам [1] из 363 млн. электронных наручных часов (ЭНЧ), выпущенных в мире в 1982 г., 180 млн. — цифровые. Годовой объем производства таких часов в СССР достиг 4 млн. штук и продолжает расти.”

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In approximate translation into English:

“Today and tomorrow electronic watches

In the magazine "Radio" No. 4, for 1974, the article "Unusual Transformations of Ordinary Watches" was published - the first domestic quartz wristwatch with digital indication (hereinafter - electronic wristwatch). In the ten years that have passed since then, this electronic product has passed an intensive path of development and has become an integral part of our life. According to the available estimates [1] of the 363 million electronic wristwatches (ELF) produced worldwide in 1982, 180 million are digital. The annual production of such watches in the USSR has reached 4 million pieces and continues to grow.”

Hope you like Comrades.

And I hope and I want you to point out mistakes and make a constructive criticism.<br>

Thank you for your atention.
 

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Mod. Russian, China Mech.
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A very impressive effort. :-! Thanks for sharing. I will probably need to read it over again a few times to grasp all of the content.

And I agree that Doensen is not a useful source at all as regards soviet watches. The numerous small errors throughout his book indicates that it was very much a solo effort without even a proof-reader, and clearly his sources for Russian information were extremely limited. An excellent book otherwise.

(by the way, I made a minor edit where you had a couple of photos swapped about)
 

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Discussion Starter · #4 ·
A very impressive effort. :-! Thanks for sharing. I will probably need to read it over again a few times to grasp all of the content.

And I agree that Doensen is not a useful source at all as regards soviet watches. The numerous small errors throughout his book indicates that it was very much a solo effort without even a proof-reader, and clearly his sources for Russian information were extremely limited. An excellent book otherwise.

(by the way, I made a minor edit where you had a couple of photos swapped about)
Thank you for try to read and for edit too!!
 
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