There are very few large ones, and it depends on your definition of both "high-end" and "large": Patek Philippe, Rolex, Audemars Piguet, Breitling, Parmigiani Fleurier, Nomos. There are dozens of smaller horlogerie outfits such as Greubel Forsey, DeBethune, Roger Smith, Kari Voutilainen, Laurent Ferrier and F.P. Journe, however.
They may not be as high-end as you'd like for the list (although they do make watches in the $20-30K range), but they have a long history that includes the production of several iconic watches and interesting advancements in horology. Although Wikipedia claims they built the world's first fully in-house watch, I question the validity of this claim.
Eterna has operated continuously since 1856. Their in-house movement division was spun-off as ETA in 1932, eventually being sold (and we all know who owns it now). The company has been sold several times in the past, most recently in 2012, but is still independent of the watch conglomerates. (Good article HERE)
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