If you're getting a DSLR, there are macro lenses for this specific purpose. I'm not sure which point-and-shoots have good macro though. Camera technology has come a long way, so I'm guessing that most cameras will have decent macro abilities.
You can buy some cheap nex camera with extension tubes and some cheap lens with an adapter. All around 150 dollars. I am a professional photographer and I shoot with a 50mm 1.8D Nikkor lens, Nikon D200 DSLR and some extenstion tubes and a flash. that is all, some macro lenses can be expensive. You could probably get a Nikon D70s or a Nikon D80 with a 55mm 3.5 macro lens and start shooting which is another way and shouldnt cost you more than 150 bucks. There are lots of other shortcuts, but not worth it. Trust me.
i find that a point and shoot, even one of lower quality, usually has great a zoom and a tight focal range. i use a canon 5d with macro lenses and it takes a great picture but my old 12 megapixel canon point and shoot takes a great close up on a tripod. <br>lighting is key though, white reflectors and the right angle makes all the difference.<br>just my $0.02
For macro shots, the smaller sensor in a point & shoot camera gives a much greater depth of field (which is already very shallow in macro shots) and usually allows you to get very close to your subject. I've even found the clip on lens from Aukey (on Amazon - I'm sure there are loads of others) that you put on your phone allows pretty good macro shots.
As mentioned up above, lighting is the key. You can fully illuminate something for excruciating detail, or you can you can angle/modify the light to create dramatic shots. That's really the key to a good shot. The equipment is secondary.
If you're serious I would definitely recommend a DSLR with a macro lens. You can get very decent cameras these days, dirt cheap. A used Canon 5d Mark II, or even Mark I with a Tamron SP 90mm f/2.8 and you're in business for under €700. And that's the pricier options. You could get a used 450d for less than €100 and a lens for about €150 and the limitations won't really be your equipment.
What kind of camera do you have now? How often will you be photographing things up close?
If you're not planning on doing this a lot, and have a camera of any type already, I recommend getting a light box and two small lights. Newer sells one on amazon where you'll be in less than $40. B&H and Adorma sell similar kits. I'd go that route before dropping a lot on a camera and lens unless you'll be shooting a lot.
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