I understand these Wittnauer 2000 series watches were built by Orient (note the movement). Orient also issued their own-branded versions for a long time.
The multi-year calendar has no connection to the movement. It's a purely manual calculator operated by the the crown the at 4 o'clock position. You can find instructions on how to use this calendar function online.
You can also find the same type of calendar system on Russian Raketa manual-wind models, such as the one below.
Just to add to what others have said, Orient started making watches with this pattern of calendar around 1960s. I don't know if it was patented or not. This particular model was made in the 1970s as a standard model under the Orient brand, and also in parallel production rebranded for Wittnauer for the North American market. It is interesting that this American brand while it was owned by Swiss company Longines imported Japanese watches.
This type of calendar is marked for a specific range of years, which will have expired long ago on your watch, but it is possible to calculate corresponding years if you really want to use this function.
And just for the heck of it, here is a modern Belarussian watch inspired by your watch:
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